The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union have set increasingly stringent emissions targets since 1996 to improve air quality. The Tier 4 regulations will be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2011 with Tier 4A standards. When Tier 4B regulations come into effect at the beginning of 2014 Particulate Matter (PM) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) will be reduced by 90% compared to Tier 3 levels.
What is the difference between the terms ‘Tier’ and ‘Stage’ when it comes to emissions regulations?
The EPA and the EU have slightly different nomenclature to refer to emissions regulations. The EPA uses the term ‘Tier’ and the EU refers to ‘Stages’. New Holland has chosen to use the term Tier. Tier 4A, which is sometimes referred to as Tier 4 interim, is the equivalent to Stage 3B and Tier 4B is the equivalent to Stage 4.
We are ready to meet Tier 4A regulations with two different solutions that have been selected for our product range: Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (CEGR) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR).
CEGR technology requires an exhaust filter system to reduce particulate levels. SCR technology uses an after treatment system that adds Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)/AdBlue to achieve the required reduction in pollutants released by the engine.
New Holland will use SCR technology on machines producing over 100hp and machines with power outputs of under 100hp will be fitted with the CEGR system in order to achieve the required emissions levels with the lowest operating costs.
New Holland Agriculture has adopted two different solutions based on their respective benefits as an one size fits all approach does not work in modern farming. We are committed to integrating the best available engine technology, to reduce operating costs and increase productivity. This means choosing tailor made solutions for each and every individual machine.
In order to guarantee our customers the most efficient, productive and reliable engine technology, New Holland has been able to draw on the vast experience of our engine development partner, Fiat Powertrain Technologies (FPT). FPT has pioneered low emission systems and has effectively applied CEGR and SCR technologies in on- and off-highway applications. In fact, over 150,000 SCR engines have already been produced for use in haulage applications. These technologies have been continually developed and refined, resulting in low operating costs and high productivity with low emissions at a competitive price.
High powered agricultural machines such as the most powerful tractors, forage and combine harvesters, generate more engine heat and require enhanced cooling systems. This made SCR the natural choice for machines over 75kW(100hp) as it reduces the cooling requirement as well as guaranteeing outstanding power output.
For smaller tractors, operating at lower horsepower with lower heat rejection and therefore lower cooling demands, CEGR is the right solution since it fits into the existing package and guarantees optimum manoeuvrability and all round versatility.
SCR technology is completely separate from the main engine function and offers clear performance advantages. Engines that use the SCR system 'breathe' clean, fresh air instead of recirculated smog to create the ideal combustion conditions. This results in increased maximum power and higher torque for improved productivity and farming efficiency.
Moreover, this solution is fully compatible with New Holland's Engine Power Management system, which tailors engine power delivery to actual operating conditions for improved performance and fuel efficiency in all situations.
CEGR technology is the perfect choice for low powered machines, as they retain their compact dimensions for exceptional manoeuvrability. Moreover, these products also have reduced cooling requirements, so the solution can neatly be contained within the engine compartment.
New Holland has implemented tailor made solutions for each product based on their respective benefits. This means that SCR will be used for high horsepower tractors, combines and forage harvesters, in other words, products of 100hp and above. CEGR technology will be used on smaller and compact products of below 100hp.
No. All tractors manufactured before the Tier 4A transition are exempt from new EPA/EU Tier 4A regulations. As this legislation is not retrospective, your New Holland Tier 3 compliant engine doesn?t need to be converted to a Tier 4A system.
Where will after-treatment be located, and what will T4A engines do to the design of compact equipment?
New Holland is a truly global company and we have a long history of technological leadership, after all, we have always been at the forefront of technical innovation. This has provided us with tremendous breadth and depth in our equipment design experience and R&D resources. For our customers, this means that our Tier 4A, and our future Tier 4B, solutions will be fully integrated into our equipment. All of our Tier 4 technology solutions form an integral part of the machines’ design, so there will be no after-market add-ons or awkward constructions.
For example, the AdBlue tank is easily recognisable with its distinctive blue cap and it is located right next to the diesel one to facilitate filling.
New Holland’s extensive line-up of lower horsepower equipment will retain their overall compact dimensions thanks to the CEGR system This system recirculates a controlled quantity of cooled exhaust gas back into the system to lower combustion temperatures. This system is neatly contained within the tractor’s pre-existing dimensions to ensure that they retain optimum manoeuvrability and versatility.
New Holland Agriculture is committed to providing ingenious solutions to improve our customers efficiency and productivity. Our Tier 4A solutions have been fully integrated into all of our machines, ensuring customers will continue to enjoy the industry-leading levels of productivity and output our machines offer. These solutions have also been designed with serviceability in mind, for example, the DEF/AdBlue tank is conveniently positioned to make refilling easy.
As emissions standards have tightened over the years, moving from Tier 1 through to Tier 3, New Holland has always been committed to providing equipment with emissions and noise levels well below regulatory levels. We have achieved these results through the introduction of advanced solutions such as our Common Rail engine technology. Common Rail Technology was developed by Fiat Group and Fiat Powertrain Technologies, and it has now been adopted as an Industry standard.
In developing our solutions to the Tier 4 requirements, we were able to draw on the extensive experience of Fiat Powertrain Technologies (FPT), our engine development partner. FPT could be considered as the environmentally friendly engine manufacturer, which has pioneered low emission systems and has effectively applied CEGR and SCR technologies in on- and off-highway applications. To date, over 150,000 engines that effectively use SCR technology have been produced for the haulage industry. These technologies are being continually developed and refined, and the result is low operating costs and high productivity with low emissions at a competitive price.
We are ready to meet Tier 4A standards when they come into effect beginning in 2011, and we will continue to work with FPT to refine our technology solutions to guarantee our customers the cost-efficiency, performance and productivity they have come to expect of New Holland.
What is more, New Holland is already looking well beyond anything already laid down by future Tier 4 regulations. We have already developed the world’s first NH2™ hydrogen tractor that produces zero emissions, just a little water. This is within the framework of the ‘Energy Independent Farm’ which would see farmers providing for all their own energy needs.
We will continue to work with Fiat Powertrain Technologies, our engine development partner, on developing the solutions that will guarantee our customers the cost-efficiency and performance they expect of our equipment. The introduction of SCR technology as early in the process as 2011 gives us a competitive advantage, because we have already invested in R&D that will be invaluable in helping us to achieve Tier 4B requirements. Having similar technology now allows us to keep our research investments focused on developing the next generation of agricultural equipment that will set new standards in cost-efficiency, productivity and performance.
It is a solution of 32.5% urea and 67.5% de-mineralized water, which is colourless and non toxic. Diesel Exhaust Fluid/AdBlue is a key element of SCR systems that reacts with engine exhaust gas in the presence of a catalyst, breaking down NOx into harmless nitrogen and water vapor, which both occur naturally in the atmosphere. The entire system is managed by a Dosing Control Unit (DCU) which uses a sensor to monitor the exhaust gases. The DCU receives this information, and uses it to calculate the precise amount of DEF/AdBlue that needs to be added to the mixture. AdBlue has already been in use for over four years in the haulage industry.
Diesel Exhaust Fluid, better known as DEF, is the name used in North America, whereas AdBlue is the European name for the same product. AdBlue is a trademark of VDA (Verband der Automobilindustrie), the German Automobile Association.
Not at all, because it is contained in the after treatment system. Furthermore, the SCR system means that maximum power and torque both increase significantly when compared to Tier 3 levels.
You only need to fill your DEF/AdBlue tank once every two diesel refills.
The DEF/AdBlue tank fill point is easily accessible for refilling, right next to the diesel tank, and a warning light indicates when the additive level is approaching a low level. It is a non-toxic substance, and can be transported and stored just like all other lubricants that are used for tractors, for example engine oil and fuel. DEF/AdBlue has a typical shelf life of 6-12 months, depending on storage conditions. The storage temperature should not fall below -11°C (12 °
F) (DEF/AdBlue freezing point) or exceed +30°C (+86
All official New Holland dealers will sell DEF/AdBlue in a variety of container sizes for maximum customer convenience, these will range from 10 litre cans to 2000 litre tanks. New Holland will also be able to deliver AdBlue direct to farms.
The engine coolant warms DEF/AdBlue inside the tank, which is designed not to be affected by freezing temperatures. At particularly low temperatures, if DEF/AdBlue reaches its freezing point of -11°C (12°F), the engine can normally work while the SCR system is de-icing, and there is no adverse impact on the engine. Moreover, the quality and functionality of AdBlue also remains unaffected by continual freezing and thawing.
At New Holland Agriculture, we are fully committed to our biodiesel strategy. In our position as Clean Energy Leader, we have been pioneering the use of biodiesel in agricultural applications since 2006. We are further confirming our commitment to this environmentally friendly fuel, by investing in extensive research into biodiesel’s place within its Tier 4A engine strategy.
With an SCR system there is no change in the oil used moreover, there is also no need to use costly diesel additives as the system can run on standard diesel, independent of fuel quality. In a CEGR system, a low ash lube oil is required for the DPF; oil changes may need to be more frequent or larger engine sumps may be required due to the higher levels of PM in the engine.
New Holland Agriculture, in partnership with our engine development partner, Fiat Powertrain Technologies, have already developed and refined these solutions to provide a reduction in operating costs and to ensure high productivity with low emissions at a competitive price.
Biodiesel is the name of a clean burning alternative fuel, produced from domestic and renewable resources such as vegetable oils. Biodiesel does not contains any petroleum, but can be blended at any level with diesel to create a biodiesel blend. Biofuel can be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines with no major internal modifications. Biodiesel is clean, simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics.
Biodiesel is a CO₂ (carbon) neutral alternative to diesel and fuel oil, and may reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. Many studies have also indicated that auto particle pollution is massively reduced with the use of biodiesel fuel, this is why it is used in urban buses in a number of large towns and cities. Biodiesel also provides a cleaner combustion and act as a lubricant for the engine, where it can replace the standard additives.
Biodiesel is produced from fats or oil using a process known as transesterification. This process is a reaction of the oil with an alcohol to remove the glycerin, which is a by-product of biodiesel production. Biodiesels chemical name is "fatty acid methyl (or ethyl) ester". These oils are mixed with sodium hydroxide and methanol (or ethanol) and the resulting chemical reaction produces biodiesel and glycerol. One part glycerol is produced every 10 parts of biodiesel.
No. Biodiesel can be produced from any vegetable oil including plants like sunflower, peanut, and rapeseed (canola). It can even be produced from previously used oils like restaurant waste grease and animal fats. Research is underway to develop more sustainable sources of oil including algae oil which could produce thousands of gallons of oil in a single acre of algae.
Biodiesel can be used as a pure fuel or blended with petrol in any percentage mix.
Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel to have fully completed the health effects testing requirements of the Clean Air Act (the law that defines Environmental Protection Agency's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer; United States Code as Title 42, Chapter 85). The use of biodiesel in a conventional diesel engine results in a substantial reduction of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter compared to emissions from diesel fuel. In addition, the exhaust emissions of sulfur oxides and sulfates (major components of acid rain) from biodiesel are essentially eliminated compared to diesel.
Source: The National Biodiesel Board
Biodiesel is actually one of the most thoroughly tested alternative and renewable fuels on the market. A number of independent studies have been completed with results showing that biodiesel performs very similar to petroleum diesel and benefits the environment when compared to diesel.
Biodiesel can be operated in any diesel engine with little or no modification to the engine or the fuel system. It has a solvent effect that can release deposits that are accumulated on fuel tank walls and fuel pipes from previous diesel fuel storage. This release of deposits may clog fuel filters initially and therefore precautions should be taken to ensure that only biofuel that meets the biodiesel specification (EN 590) is used in the diesel engine.
In the first instance it shows that hydrogen technology is possible on a conventional tractor. In fact, the tractor remains a conventional construction, for the most part, in its design as well as in the major components (except the absence of an internal combustion engine).It shows that this technology works for tractors. It is, however, just the beginning of a new era, in which farming could gradually detach itself from fossil fuels.
This is a prototype, and as such it does not have a commercial price. As a first step based on projected advances in fuel cell technology and hydrogen production, it is possible that such a product could become commercially viable in the not too distant future. We continue to do advanced development and will be at the forefront of this exciting new technology as it evolves, New Holland wanted to show the feasibility of a hydrogen powered tractor as an integral part of energy independent farming. In the following stages, more advanced prototypes will be developed.
Absolutely not! While it is true that NH²™ is a concept, the underlying technologies exist and are in various stages of commercial development
New Holland believes that it can become viable in the not too distant future. The technology already exists, now it depends on the evolution of the costs of the main components.
Yes, the technology is already there. With further technological developments there will be additional cost reductions and it will become more commercially available.
This is a conceptual design, for this revolutionary tractor, and does not mean that in the future New Holland tractors will look like this.
No, there is no limitation of power in a hydrogen fueled tractor. But so far we have focused on mid range tractors, with roughly 130hp.
Yes. It emits water and vapor. The fuel cell reacts as follows: H₂ + ½ O₂ —► H₂0 (water) + electrons.
Also, hydrogen has the highest energy content per unit weight of any known fuel (120.7 kJ/g). When hydrogen reacts with oxygen, the only by-products are heat and water. The process of converting hydrogen to energy using engines or fuel cells is much more efficient than the comparable gasoline counterparts.
Source : US department of Energy
Apart from the zero emissions, it has other advantages :
- No discernable noise (55 dbA)
- It is the ultimate CVT : no gears, no power loss thanks to a continuous electrical drive
- The power is delivered only as needed, therefore saving energy
- No powershuttle : just reverse the electric motor (change electric flow)
- PTO speed becomes variable from 0 to 1000 rpm
What are the different types of energy that can be used in agriculture on an energy independent farm?
It depends on the renewable resources that the farmer focussed on. Hydrogen can be obtained from different sources of energy: biomass, wind, solar and waste, for example.
Yes and no. Currently most of the commercially produced hydrogen is obtained from processes that emit CO₂. However, the Energy Independent Farm (EIF) concept promotes and shows the viability of producing H₂ from renewable resources, emitting very low quantities of pollutants in its production.
But hydrogen and the fuel cell are technologies that will not be available before 10 to 20 years’ time?
Absolutely not! The costs of the main components are reducing quickly. Also, specialists believe that this technology can be viable in the near future. And the European Union is pushing in this direction as well, with the ―3 x 20 European objective from now till 2020 for all Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 20% compared to 1990; improve energy efficiency by 20%; and use 20% of renewable energy in energy production. Electricity, hydrogen and other renewable energy sources are being promoted.
Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. However it is always bonded with something else like oxygen (to make water) or carbon (to make all plants). Hydrogen is all around us, but to use it, we must first separate the hydrogen from the other things bonded to it. One of hydrogen's advantages is that it can be made from a variety of local resources like water, plants, coal, natural gas and even algae. H₂ is an energy carrier. The energy to produce it would come from any renewable resources such as waste, biomass, solar (for example, with current technology, 600m² of photovoltaic panels would be needed to generate enough energy for the NH²™) or wind energy. Then, with water, electricity would be produced by a process called electrolysis. Hydrogen would be stored and used to power machines or could be reconverted into electricity to power other equipment. It is the perfect complement for other resources that are not constantly supplying energy, such as solar and wind, because it can effectively be stored as hydrogen.
An electrolyzer uses an electric current to separate water into its components-hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen is collected at the cathode and oxygen is collected at the anode. The electrolizer is basically the opposite process of a fuel cell.
Electrolysis does not require significant amounts of water. The hydrogen extracted from a liter of water using a hydrogen generator could drive a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle as far as gasoline vehicles travel today on a liter of gasoline. Also, an interesting analysis was done in the USA. They posed this question: if all cars ran on hydrogen, and all hydrogen was produced from water, would we run out of water? Conversion of the current U.S. car fleet to fuel cell vehicles would require about 300 billion liters of water/year to supply the needed hydrogen. However, today some 900 billion liters of water/year is used for the production of gasoline. Therefore, comparing with the current water used to produce fossil fuels, this solution would be saving significant volumes of water.
New Holland developed this project in a very short time. It took only four months to build the first prototype. This was only possible because it has benefited from the years of research by the Fiat Group and its partners.
In the Ariane 5, there was a mix of propellants (ergols) used, among which is hydrogen. But it is used in its liquid form and combined with other oxidants to burn and generate energy. In the NH²™ , power is obtained through a fuel cell, without combustion, making it a complete different process.
It certainly depends on each farmers situation. For farmers already producing electricity from other sources, such as biogas, the implementation costs would be lower than others who should set up the complete system using solar or wind energy. However, in a few years the investment required for such a system will be affordable and our estimate is that it could be paid back in 3 years or less.
The torque of this tractor is 300 Nm. The current autonomy of this tractor is between 1.5 and 2 hours, with a 110 liter tank storing hydrogen at 350 bar. Note that this is the first prototype and there is room for improvement. For example, by increasing the pressure and tank size, the autonomy in future prototypes can reach acceptable values.
While hydrogen has a wider flammability range than gasoline, the range is only a piece of the story when considering the likelihood of a fire resulting from hydrogen escaping into the atmosphere. Each fuel has different properties that must be considered along with flammability range. For example: Gasoline's narrow flammability range is misleading, since this range can easily and often be reached through normal consumer handling of gasoline and certainly if spilled. There are of course gasoline fires but, as we know, fires certainly don't occur every time gasoline vapors are released to the open air, because the vapors fail to find an ignition source in time. Hydrogen has a wider flammability range, but because it is lighter than air (50 times lighter than gasoline vapors and even lighter than helium) and diffuses 12 times faster than gasoline vapors do, it is very difficult for hydrogen gas to find a suitable ignition source in an open environment, like a fuelling station.
Hydrogen systems used for vehicle fuelling are designed to provide public safety just as gasoline systems are designed to do. While both fuelling systems utilize break-away hoses, shear valves, and monitoring systems, hydrogen systems go a step further. Hydrogen refuelers are designed as "closed" systems, meaning that the fuel is not exposed to the atmosphere - unlike gasoline which can be spilled fairly easily during refuelling. This closed system design approach keeps hydrogen always within proper containment and does not allow oxygen or air to mix with the fuel, thereby eliminating one of the required combustion elements needed to create a fire. This further mitigates hydrogen's low ignition energy property, compared to gasoline, by never allowing a spark or ignition source to have any ability to interact with the hydrogen gas.
Source Shell Hydrogen LLC
Accidentally breathing a small amount of hydrogen won't harm you. Hydrogen is non-toxic to humans, animals and the environment. Like other commonly-used gases, hydrogen displaces, or pushes away, oxygen. Since hydrogen disperses (rises and spreads out) very quickly, there’s a very low risk of breathing too much.
Yes, just electricity would be more efficient, but electricity is energy and it has to be stored in order to be used on a tractor. The electricity should be stored in batteries but their size and weight to achieve the average autonomy of a tractor would be so huge that they could not be fitted in it. A tractor consumes around 368kWh daily , for an 8 hour operation in a farm. In order to have a battery to support that kind of operation, using the state of art batteries, its size should be around 3,2 m³! (the current hydrogen tank has 0,1m³). The weight of this battery would be around 6,5 tons! It becomes practically impossible to develop a tractor with a battery of this size and weight. And there are other problems as well: - these batteries lose 20% of its capacity every year. After 5 years, its capacity would be reduced to only 40% - Quick refuelling would be practically impossible : to recharge a tractor in 1 hour time, it would be needed a medium power station of 600 kW. And recharging a battery with this power would possibly mean damaging it. Finally, one question naturally arises: where would we dispose 6 tons of battery ? For these reasons, a battery is not foreseen as a solution for tractors. Batteries can be used efficiently for cars, because they can do short distances, work at full power at a minimum amount of time, have regeneration systems when braking, and refuelling can be done overnight, at reasonable rates. This is not the case for tractors.
Yes! This is the first agricultural tractor powered by Hydrogen. There were other initiatives using other types of fuel cells in the past, but none with hydrogen. In 1959, an Allis Chalmers tractors ran with alkaline fuel cells. However, it is important to notice that it was powered by propane, not hydrogen.
Fuel cells were initially demonstrated in 1839, by Sir William Grove. However, a truly workable fuel cell was not demonstrated until 1959. After use in NASA's space programme, interest in fuel cells died down somewhat until the 1990s when research and development started to lead towards greater prospects of commercialisation.
Source : fuelcelltoday.com
There are a number of types of fuel cell which are normally distinguished by the electrolyte they contain. The best-known types are alkaline, molten carbonate, phosphoric acid, proton exchange membrane and solid oxide. Direct methanol and regenerative fuel cells are also being extensively researched.
Source : fuelcelltoday.com
A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that produces electricity and heat from a fuel (often hydrogen) and oxygen. Unlike a conventional engine, it does this without burning the fuel and can therefore be more efficient and cleaner.
Source : fuelcelltoday.com
Whilst a battery chemically stores and releases electricity, a fuel cell produces energy by reacting a fuel with air. A battery will therefore run out of power and have to be recharged or disposed of. A fuel cell, however, will continue to function and produce power as long as the fuel and oxygen are supplied to it. Source : fuelcelltoday.com
Fuel cells themselves are not a power source: rather they use a fuel to produce power. If this fuel is obtained from renewable sources, then fuel cells can be an important part of the energy chain, perhaps with hydrogen being used to store intermittent energy and fuel cells converting this hydrogen back to power when required.
Source : fuelcelltoday.com